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Subjectivity in Stone Age art works such as figure stones, engravings, sculptures, effigies and curated manuports. See how images and icons have been realized in portable rock media since the dawn of humanity. Here, archaeologists and art historians are becoming aware of these forsaken artifacts. “And this our life, exempt from public haunt, finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, sermons in stones, and good in every thing." -in W. Shakespeare, As You Like It, 1599.

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    "Sitting Mammoth" (6.5 cm)
    Adam Arkfeld find, site #44FK732, at Clear Brook, Virginia

    As far as I can determine, the Virginia Ice Age Arkfeld Site has produced more mammoth sculptures than any other archaeological site in the world.

    Photo of a sitting elephant for comparison of the sitting proboscidean forms.

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    A stone bracelet from Siberia's Denisova Cave, claimed to be 40,000 years old due to dating of soil and made by Denisovans because of a pinky finger bone and two teeth found in the same soil layer. Neither claim is proven and requires further research at other sites to corroborate the possibility.

    "Near one of the cracks was a drilled hole with a diameter of about 0.8 cm. Studying them, scientists found out that the speed of rotation of the drill was rather high, fluctuations minimal, and that was there was applied drilling with an implement - technology that is common for more recent times."

    The significance of the “Denisovan bracelet” is not the disbelief of the establishment that Denisovans were capable of such stone working technology but that the claim has been given fact-like status in the popular media and even in this Pleistocene Coalition News (PCN) article. At this time, we only know this could perhaps, possibly, be the oldest known jewelry of its type.

    "The institute's deputy director Mikhail Shunkov suggested that the find indicates the Denisovans - though now extinct - were more advanced than Homo sapiens and Neanderthals." This suggestion is preposterous and not supported by anything but the archaeologist's desires.

    The bracelet is not attributable to Denisovans with any degree of certainty. There is no such thing as a “Denisovan layer” at 40,000 B.P. when we know there was breeding between Denisovans and Homo sapiens sapiens. They were in fact co-existing and more, so the presence of a Denisovan bone does not exclude the presence of Homo sapiens sapiens if we accept the 40k soil date as equal to the bracelet date.

    Further, there is evidence of Homo sapiens sapiens occupations over thousands of years in the Denisova Cave until as recently as the Middle Ages. And "... researchers have suggested that Neanderthals, H. sapiens, and a third group of genetically distinct hominins (the Denisovans) inhabited the Altai region at the same time some 40,000 years ago."

    Siberian archaeologist Anatoly Derevyanko merely believes the layer was not contaminated by Homo sapiens sapiens. There is no way to prove this or to exclude the possibility the bracelet and ring were not deposited by later intrusions into that soil layer such as with a burial of someone wearing them both. Because stone bracelets like this have never before been associated with soils or cultures anywhere near 40,000 years old, archaeologists have a further burden to demonstrate other examples before claiming anything more than pure conjecture. No hard conclusions can be made based on this single find.

    Archaeologists now need to find use of easel speed drilling, boring tool type rasp, grinding and polishing with a leather and skins of varying degrees of tanning as used on this bracelet in a “Denisovan layer” somewhere that pre-dates and excludes Homo sapiens sapiens. Then we can discuss Denisovan jewelry. This is not likely to occur in our lifetimes.

    I personally think it is very possible it is a Denisovan bracelet but think the highly speculative claim of the archaeologists only lays the ground for further research. I also think speculation is a healthy part of initial scientific inquiry and my speculations about portable rock art are prefaced by the word "suspected" in this blog's header. Sometimes, art is a difficult thing to prove.

    However, speculation in the cloak of fact by archaeology officialdom needs to be questioned. In its desire to demonstrate early human intelligence and capabilities they have failed to qualify or be critical of claims regarding this bracelet. We simply do not know that this was a Denisovan bracelet or that it is 40,000 years old and these should not be accepted or repeated as established facts.

    For now, it's just an interesting possibility.

    The archaeologists reporting the bracelet, the popular media and the PCN have contributed to a distortion of the human past by presenting the technologies used to make the bracelet as “advanced.” This is a highly judgmental and biased construct of these analysts and does not reflect any “undeniably high workmanship (PCN)” on any known material culture technology continuum.

    Some early art collectors, scholars and students would be of the strong opinion that "more advanced" stone working technologies and concepts in art were present at several hundred thousand years ago and almost completely lost to us in our time. Luckily the internet has come along to allow world-wide uncensored exchange of photos and opinions by persons making these observations. From another and important perspective, the "Denisovan bracelet" may be seen as quite a juvenile, simplistic piece of work.

    “It should be noted that many millennia would pass before modern man would again turn out jewelry of the same quality and workmanship (PCN)” Does the PCN really believe this can be known?

    “So what is the bracelet that has stood the archaeological community on its ear? It’s (sic) physical appearance shows that it is something that most any modern woman would be proud to wear (PCN).”  This only furthers the distortion of this artifact in the greater archaeological context and seems to value the artifact more because it is like something we are familiar with. Value judgments like this should be culled from anthropological presentations.

    The archaeologists present a modern copper bracelet next to the purported “Denisovan bracelet” in their media release photos (photo above) which also distorts its technological and cultural context and can only be present as a rhetorical device to show us how much those Denisovans were just like us.

    The hardness of the Denisovan braclet stone approximates that of wood on the Mohs scale. It seems possible the same technologies could have been in use on wood for a very long time and we just happened to have been given a glance at a wood technology applied to a highly rare stone material procured by the maker. What if the Denisovan bracelet is a freak? Maybe we need to see examples on harder stone, more like the known Neolithic examples, in a Denisovan context before such direct comparisons of lithic technologies may be properly made.

    It is time for archaeologists to adopt a more honest and taphonomically logical approach to these kinds of discoveries and to strive for an emic perspective rather than falling into an etic, even judgmental one.

    In conclusion, there is not enough archaeological data or knowledge which should allow the publishing researchers or the PCN to draw the conclusions they have. The PCN article title is "Advanced technological skills in early human groups is still resisted." Maybe this resistance is because it is not proven in this case.

    Proposed "goal state model" after a kind of taphonomic logic of criticism is applied to the "Adavnced Denisovan" bracelet. Click photo to expand and view.
    Disclosure: I was perturbed by the archaeologists' publication, then the mainstream media reports. Then the PCN chimed in and I felt the topic should be addressed with a more critical eye. The PCN has published a couple of articles I submitted to them over the years and I link to two at the top of this page. I enjoy the PCN immensely and am very thankful for the extraordinary volunteer efforts of its publishers and editors.        -KBJ

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    Limestone sculpture "Hare sniffing the breeze"

    Limestone hare sculpture find by Stacy Dodd and Rod Weber, The Old Route 66 Zoo Site, #23JP1222, near Joplin, Missouri. Found among scores of iconic stones in a concentrated area on private property still open to archaeological investigation by qualified professionals.

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    Acoustic resonance stone horn from the Arkfeld site provides an extraordinary opportunity to hear the music of the distant past (30cm). It may be the oldest known stone musical wind instrument in the world.

    In this video Adam Arkfeld demonstrates the acoustic resonance stone horn musical wind instrument he identified and has experimented with at Clear Brook, Virginia. Arkfeld's discovery of the instrument and replication of its use provides an extraordinary opportunity for us to hear the musical sounds of the distant past.

    Arkfeld thinks the dark and shiny patina of the horn is evidence of heavy handling by human hands over a long period of time in prehistory. It appears to have "lip wear" around the mouth piece.

    The art and tools at the Arkfeld archaeology site suggest a Pleistocene age for the site and this may be the oldest known stone wind instrument in the world. Some dated examples of wind instruments made in bone exceed 30,000 years BP, but portable stone acoustics seems much less common. I have not been able to locate record of another example of a naturally advantageous portable stone which has been humanly modified to create an acoustic wind instrument.

    The people at Arkfeld Site were masters of limestone lithic technology and were able to exploit it to make the entire range of stone tools they needed, along with many art objects and now we know: musical instruments. This artifact speaks to the durability of the ancient peoples at the site and their profound intimacy with the natural materials available to them.

    Side 1 with mouth piece

    The mouth piece was enhanced by stone removal and accepts human lips perfectly

    Side 2. A cupped or flat hand on the side opposite the mouthpiece allows one to manipulate the sound vibrations from the horn. The stone appears to have been modified to optimize air flow and vibration qualities.

    The wind vent and sound holes illustrated, click photo to expand. The sound hole 1 has a shape reminiscent of the f-shaped sound holes found on violins. Sound hole 2 is connected to sound hole 1 but neither are directly connected to the wind flow from the mouth piece coming out of the vent.

    "Though the purpose of sound holes is to help acoustic instruments project their sound more efficiently, the sound does not emanate solely (nor even mostly) from the location of the sound hole. The majority of sound emanates from the surface area of both sounding boards, with sound holes playing a part by allowing the sounding boards to vibrate more freely, and by allowing some of the vibrations which have been set in motion inside the instrument to travel outside the instrument."

    Side 2. The stone has a look of two animal heads at the opposite ends looking away from each other. Adam Arkfeld says they somewhat resemble seals. Could it be a seal-horn?

    The acoustic resonance horn at bottom has a zoomorphic form similar to one seen in other objects at Arkfeld site pictured above it.

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    Limestone bird figure, Arkfeld Site, Clear Brook, Virginia (10cm)

     Another limestone bird figure (9cm)

    A third Arkfeld Site limestone bird figure (click photos to expand)

    Two heavy duty diamond-shaped burins flank a 10cm chipped stone point at center

     Side 2 Arkfeld Site tools

    Flint Ridge, Licking County, Ohio, bird figure featured in an earlier posting is made on the same semi-formalized scheme or template as the Arkfeld Site limestone bird. This demonstrates a suspected Stone Age Eastern North American cultural imperative to create similar bird figures despite vastly different locally available stone resources.

    Flint Ridge, Ohio, diamond-shaped burins found with bird figures just like at Arkfeld Site. Ohio chert version at left and Ohio limestone version at right.

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    Beegden, Netherlands, find by Jan van Es

    A knowledgeable interpreter offered commentary on this sculpture: "Both bird and excellent designed 'forest elephant facing L with big floppy ears' and 'baby elephant or mammoth facing left in center of the forest elephant'.

    This figure has both human and owl facial qualities and could be interpreted as a 'bird man'

    Beegden, Netherlands, Jan van Es

    Great Pampau, Germany, find by Ursel Benekendorff
    Photo Copyright (c) Ursel Benekendorff, All Rights Reserved.

    Photo Copyright (c) Ursel Benekendorff, All Rights Reserved

    Beegden, Netherlands, distance from Great Pampau, Germany is 400km

    The find locations of the stone owl sculptures identified in Lower Paleolithic contexts in the Netherlands and Germany by two of the most prolific researchers and interpreters of Pleistocene portable rock art art in the world, Mrs. Ursel Benekendorff and Mr. Jan van Es.
    "Most people who care much about art find that of the work that moves them most the greater part is what scholars call "Primitive" ...In primitive art you will find no accurate representation; you will find only significant form. Yet no other art moves us so profoundly." -Clive Bell, 1914; quoted after Cahn and Meskin 2007: 266.

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    Simple stone faces, Arkfeld Site, Clear Brook, Virginia

     Fontmaure, France- 'Mask' form featured by Richard Wilson at

    Opening soon. An exhibition of figure-stones from the Palaeolithic site of Fontmaure in France.

    Watford Museum,
    194 High Street,
    WD17 2DT

    Opening times: Thursday-Saturday 10:00-17:00
    Free Admission

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    'Jefferson's giant ground sloth right profile view'
    Stacy Dodd and Rod Weber find, The Old Route 66 Zoo Site, #23JP1222

    Initially suggestive of a standing bear, I recognize this zoomorphic stone as "slothy" and then consider the tail-like projection on the sculpture as a likely depiction of this animal's very substantial tail which it used for balance and support while stripping trees of foliage. A couple of other sloth sculptures have been featured on this blog. The sitting/standing upright posture is more normal for a sloth than a bear.

    In the context of the scores of sculptures from the Old Route 66 Zoo Site near Joplin, Missouri, some depicting Ice Age animals, this stone may be reasonably interpreted as a manufactured or recognized giant ground sloth representation.

    Dr. Brian Redmond, curator of archaeology at The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, was lead author on research published in the Feb. 22, 2012 online issue of the journal World Archaeology. Redmond and researchers analyzed 10 animal bones found in 1998 in the collections of the Firelands Historical Society Museum in Norwalk, Ohio. The bones were from a Jefferson's Ground Sloth. This large plant-eating animal became extinct at the end of the Ice Age around 10,000 years ago. Here, Redmond discusses the research.

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    Human head sculpture looking left. Arkfeld Site, Clear Brook, Virginia (16cm)

    The human head has features such as eyes, nose, mouth and ear.

    There may a representation of a cartoon-like face with a big smile or laugh on the side of the human head depiction. This kind of smiling mouth appears in other portable rock art pieces.

    Allesandra, Italy

    "Fig. 4.22) Lithic sculpture. It represents a human head without the neck. Strong stylistic deformation in ironic sense, deduced from the large nose.

    Size: Height cm. 12.

    Place of origin: Tortona, Alessandria, Italy.

    Material culture: Mousterian, but perhaps previous.

    It comes from an ancient alluvium of the Scrivia Torrent; it is damaged, as there are no more external traces of working. But the traces are present in the recess that constitute the orbitale zone and the mouth. The human type seems an archaic Homo sapiens, but it does not have chin, and the forehead is little. The style lengthens the head vertically.

    Collection Museum of the Origins of Man."

    Human head in Paleolithic sculpture, Pietro Gaietto, Museum of the Origins of Man

    There may be a small face mask form next to the laughing face mask depicting a more serious expression. Could this be similar to our own concepts of the masks of comedy and tragedy? Or could it be a symbolic expression of 'youth' and 'old age'?

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    Typical bird figure in the hand
    Found by David Smith, Barry County, Missouri

    "I found these and many many more on my 100 acre property in southwest Missouri. These were just a few pics I had on my phone. My property is located where two creeks and hollows come together and my house is on a mound above a spring." --David Smith

    Same bird figure standing upright on its flat base
    "But Boucher de Perthes... ...also secured his position as a paid-up member of the lunatic fringe. Alongside his perceptive observations of stratigraphy and artefacts in the gravel pits of Abbeville and Amiens he also illustrated many stone sculptures. His claims for heads of birds and humans in natural lumps of gravel undoubtedly delayed the full acceptance of his scientific observations."  Professor Clive Gamble, University of Southampton
    Open note to Professor Gamble: We can now see mainstream archaeology as the real lunatic fringe for never having scientifically pursued the topic of figure stones despite over 165 years of amateurs' calls for it starting with Jacques Boucher de Perthes.

    Countless world archaeology sites have been missed or destroyed by academicians and professionals because there was no consideration or accounting of iconic stone sculpture material like this that would have contained substantially more cultural information about the past than technological tool sets.

    Because it is fundamentally dysfunctional as a science, Archaeology is not able to 'walk out on limbs' like most other sciences which welcome novel hypotheses. In the case of portable rock art, they prefer to cut the limb off at the trunk based on long-standing dogma rather than pursue what could be a major new branch of archaeological inquiry.

    Statue of a bust perhaps depicted with tall hairdo, wrapping or hat. Also, sometimes secondary creatures are represented on top or at the forehead of human heads in portable rock art. The statue stands upright on its flat base in this position. 

    A biface from the site with possible spokeshave element on right edge

    2 mammoth or mastodon heads in bas relief, both with 'eyes' in correct positions in similar stone material from David Smith at Barry County, Missouri.

    A Missouri simple stone face like those identified at Arkfeld Site in Virginia and at Fontmaure, France, just recently featured on this blog.

    More stone faces found by David Smith, Barry County, Missouri

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    Jeff Vincent new find, Mammoth Spring, Fulton County, Arkansas

    Interpreted as a deer by Jeff but I think it is possibly a running horse depiction with its mane in swept-back position.

    The 'eye' of the animal is a perforation through the stone with close tolerance with the edge. (Click on photo to expand view). Jeff notes a simple face depiction on the animal's chest.

    Simple human face depiction on the animal's chest

    'Bird in flight with eye, wing in up-stroke position' is a recent find by Jeff Vincent. It appears to show a raptor looking down at the ground. Jeff has identified many portable rock art pieces at Mammoth Spring as featured on this blog for several years.

    Another classic flying bird figure from Mammoth Spring identified by Jeff and featured earlier on this blog.

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    Limestone mammoth or mastodon figure
    Jeremy Lowcock find, Vermont
    "I found these in the Northeast Kingdom in Vermont.  I was hunting for serpentine to make some hand made cabochon and I started noticing that some looked like faces and animals.  It blew my mind what I was finding and for a while I thought it was just my imagination but I have found some crazy stones. Do you have any idea what this is all about?  I have found what looks like an elephant or mastodon and I gotta say I am really dumbfounded. Any insight would be appreciated, this is keeping me up nights." - Jeremy
    The Vermont location of Jeremy's surface survey finds suggests the people who made or collected this art were living along the retreating Laurentide ice sheet at the end of the last glacial maximum after around 13,500 years ago and presumably before the ca. 10,000 years ago extinction of the mammoths or mastodons depicted in the stone figures.

    Mammoth likeness identified by Jeremy Lowcock

    Standing mammoth likeness, side hole serves as 'eye,' hole in top of head may have had some purpose.

    Vermont simple face 1

    Vermont simple face 2

    Vermont simple face 3

    This gemstone serpentinite rock has a natural pattern which may have been noticed as a human face likeness in the Stone Age and collected with the other iconic stones found in the area

    Detail of natural human face-like pattern which may have been noticed in prehistory, prompting collection and transport of the stone. Its high level of polish may indicate it was curated for some time.

    'Crouching feline, ready to pounce from above'

    The highest visual point on the stone is the peak of the feline's arched back. There may be a depiction of the cat's left front paw. There also appears to be a nicely carved 'tail.'

    'Crouching feline figure on a rock' faces viewers directly. The feline looks ready to pounce from above. This is a single stone where the crack delineates the animal from the rock it is 'standing on'. (Click photos to expand and toggle between marked and unmarked photos.)

    Close up of the animal's face detail. The bifurcated chin helps tell us this is a feline.

    Crude tools and a flake core identified by Jeremy Lowcock, Northeast Kingdom, Vermont, in the portable rock art context. The relationship of these kinds of tools to the art is suspected but must be confirmed by future archaeology work at multiple sites.

    Willoughby Notch and Mt. Pisgah, Vermont

    It seems the earliest Americans may have been using simple flake and bend-break tools to serve their needs. Similar simple points have been identified at the deepest levels of the Topper Site, Allendale County, South Carolina, with a 50,000 years BP date proposed.

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    Possible Virginia Pleistocene megalithic sculpture

    Anonymous sent this photo of a rock outcrop in Virginia which may have been modified to further resemble a mammoth profile facing right. The mammoth's eye and the lines in the rock defining the trunk look to be areas which could be checked for human agency and inspected for dating by rock art experts.

    Mammoth head and trunk

    My own interpretation of this sculpted outcrop detects a faint feline face profile looking left on the posterior of the mammoth with remnants of an oval shaped eye and a two-nostril nose. The shape of the cat's head and a possible triangle-shaped fang tooth suggests it may represent a scimitar cat. This could be a recognition of the predator-prey relationship of these two animals.

    Interpreted combination of feline and mammoth heads

    At its peak the rock is about 20 feet (6m) off the ground. The Shenandoah and Appalachian Mountain ranges present endless opportunities for early American peoples to seek shelter and to reflect their lives in the permanence of the stone outcrop material around them.

    With a strong bias in favor of petroglyphs over sculpture, archaeology seems to have completely missed rock art in the American southeast which was made by exploiting natural stone features like is done in portable rock art. This sculptural landscape rock art is also covered by this blog in order to support the context of the portable materials.

    Suspected 'mammoth' boulder in Germany, photo courtesy of Nelly Sloan.

    This rock outcrop on Sicily, Italy, is among others there which have iconic properties. A human form has been recognized in the right side of this rock. Maybe it should also be considered as a candidate for a rock art depiction of an elephant or similar creature.

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    Adam Arkfeld find, Clear Brook, Virginia, Site #44FK732.

    Interpreted as a mammoth profile facing left and a human head profile looking right. A faint eye, nostril and mouth are still visible.

    Above artifact under different lighting (Click photos to expand)

    Mammoth figure number two with human head profile depicted on its posterior. This one is water worn but still has its basic form. We must keep in mind these art pieces are over 10,000 years old and with demonstrated Middle Paleolithic affinities they could be much older.

    Ken Johnston illustrated interpretation of the human head profile depicted on the posterior of the mammoth

    Arkfeld Site stone tools

    More Arkfeld Site stone tools

    More Arkfeld Site mammoth-like figures (8cm). It is possible some of the zoomorphic stone shapes being found by amateurs in concentrated areas across the Unites States were used by children as play figures.

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    'Mammoth sculpture with human face on posterior'
    Henri Valentie find on an art producing Lower Paleolithic site on the Île d'Oléron, Atlantic Coast, France.  28/18/11 cm

    Ken Johnston illustrated interpretation of the human facial profile on the posterior of the France mammoth. 

    The presence of this art motif on coastal France and near coastal North America at the Arkfeld site in Virginia may indicate a Paleolithic intercontinental cultural connection via the Atlantic Ocean. Please see the posting just prior to this one for two recently found American examples which compare favorably to this France example.

    This sculpture has two flat 'bases' it will stand upright on

    Sculpture standing on its second base presents human face forms noted by Mr. Valentie

    The sculpture has two human heads joined together. The one on the left may be an example of the Paleolithic art motif 'right eye open, left eye missing' where the 'x' represents the place of the missing eye. The line indicates an approximate split of the two heads.

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    'Mammoth left profile and feline head right profile'

    Twydall, Kent, U.K. 'crude core tool' may be a more meaningful mammoth figure combined with a feline head figure in an early example of this motif at ca. 400,000 YBP. This motif may have persisted for a couple-hundred thousand years and into North America which would be unbelievable if were not for the already demonstrated persistence of the Acheulean handaxe for nearly one million years.

    Interpretation by Ken Johnston and another example of iconic materials already existing in museum or private collections which are very old but which have not yet been recognized. The high point on the left of the figure is the peak of the mammoth head and is also the peak of the stylized feline's ear.

    "A crude Lower Palaeolithic Clactonian core tool, made from banded brown flint, measuring 75 x 101 mm/2.9 x 4 ins. Some retouching around the edges, although of irregular shape, the tool fits nicely in the hand. Found at Twydall, Kent, around 1908.

    Ex Peter Negus Collection. Clactonian tools date back to around 400,000 years ago and represent some of the earliest artefacts found in Britain."

    In North America, please reference this feline head and mammoth combination on a large rock outcrop formation in the state of Virginia.

    Blog reader Katie Bretsch observed that by rotating the figure 45 degrees left a nice badger head left profile is depicted. I think this is an excellent observation. There may be a crude human face profile on far right edge of the sculpture.

    At 400,00 years before present we had early humans with the cognitive symbolic capacities to understand something (a stone) could also be several other things at once- mammoth, badger and feline in a kind of optical illusion, just depending how one focuses visual attention on the piece.

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    'Mammoth left profile combined with face depiction on its posterior'
    Adam Arkfeld find, Clear Brook, Virginia

    'Mammoth right profile combined with face depiction on its posterior'

    The point at the top of the stone is the crest of the mammoth's head. The face on the mammoth's posterior on this side of the piece seems to show a broad incised grin in profile. Maybe the face is depicted as frowning on the other side. 8x10cm.

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    Lower Paleolithic find from Beegden, The Netherlands, by archaeologist Jan van Es of Roermond.

    The rabbit figure is a symbol of summer and reproduction notes van Es. "This one has lips like Marilyn Monroe." - Jan van Es

    Click on photos to expand view

    Ball and triangle shaped eyes of the rabbit also seen in other forms which may have human shaping

    Side 1 and 2

    Rock art researcher Hans Grams of Germany has pointed out the possible relationship of the angles of this triangle to the angle of the sun at the summer solstice at the 51 degrees North latitude find location of this stone. (Email communication from Mr. Grams.)

    Homo erectus portrait

    Collection of Jan van Es, Roermond, The Netherlands

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    A bison figure from The Old Route 66 Zoo Site, 23JP1222, Jasper County, Missouri. Stacy Dodd and Rod Weber find. 20x15cm

    Please note the detail of the bison face includes a clear right eye. The face seems to have a mixture of of bison and human qualities

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    Stacy Dodd and Rod Weber find, Jasper County, Missouri

    One of many bird form sculptures found at this Paleolithic portable rock art mega site. The bird has been given an eye perforation in the stone at the more or less correct artistic position. I also interpret cosmic egg imagery here where the bird is depicted as emerging beak first from the top of an egg, and where the egg depicts a human face on its side.

    Bird head figures were described in the mid-19th century by the French amateur archaeologist Jacques Boucher de Perthes in Acheulean (Homo erectus) contexts. Boucher de Perthes himself said "The placement of the eye is a sure sign of intent." 

    Interpreted faint remnants of a human face depiction on the egg/breast of the bird sculpture. The eyes are more clear but there are also traces of a nose and mouth. This is seen in several other examples on this blog. These images were certainly more visually clear at the time of their use.

    The apparent working traces seem ripe for investigation by rock art professionals to confirm them and begin to understand the age of these enigmatic artifacts. They simply are not yet accounted for by current North American anthropological science.

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